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The ketogenic diet is a nutritional strategy based on the reduction of food carbohydrates , which "forces" the body to independently produce glucose necessary for survival and to increase the energy consumption of fat contained in adipose tissue .

Ketogenic diet means " diet that produces ketone bodies " (a metabolic residue of energy production). Regularly produced in minimal quantities and easily disposable with urine and pulmonary ventilation , ketone bodies reach a higher level than the normal condition. The undesired excess of ketone bodies, responsible for the tendency to lower blood pH , is called ketosis . Even the ' motor activity affects, positively or negatively (depending on the case), on the condition of ketoacidosis. The presence of ketone bodies in the blood has different effects on the body; some are considered useful in the weight loss process , others are "collateral".

There is not just one type of ketogenic diet and all dietary styles that provide less carbohydrate than necessary, such as the Atkins diet or LCHF ( low carb , high fat - low carbohydrate, high fat) are ketogenic . Some types of ketogenic diet are used in the clinical setting, but these are systems mainly used in the field of fitness and aesthetic culture .

Characteristics of the ketogenic diet The ketogenic diet (in English ketogenic diet or keto diet) is a nutritional scheme: Low in calories ( low-calorie diet ) Low percentage and absolute carbohydrate content (low carb diet) High percentage of proteins , even if the absolute quantity (in grams) is more often medium High percentage and absolute lipid content.

What to eat in the ketogenic diet? The most important aspect to reach the state of ketosis is to eat foods that do not contain carbohydrates, to limit those that bring few and avoid the foods that are rich in them. The recommended foods are: Meat , fishery products and eggs - the basic food group Cheeses - The fundamental group of foods Fats and seasoning oils - V fundamental group of foods Vegetables - VI and VII fundamental group of foods.

Generally, it is recommended to maintain a carbohydrate intake of less than or equal to 50 g / day, ideally organized in 3 portions with 20 g each. A rather strict guideline for a correct ketogenic diet involves an energy distribution of: 10% from carbohydrates 15-25% protein (not forgetting that proteins, also containing glucogenic amino acids, participate in supporting the level of glucose in the blood ) 70% or more from fat.

The ketone bodies can be further oxidized, in particular from muscle cells, from the heart and to a lesser extent from the brain (which uses them especially in the absence of glucose), or eliminated with urine and pulmonary ventilation. Needless to specify that increasing the ketone bodies in the blood also increases the workload of the kidneys . If the production of ketone bodies exceeds the disposal capacity of the organism, they accumulate in the blood, giving rise to the so-called ketosis.